Point of View documents

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“Love the Processor, Hate the Process: The Temptations of Clever Algorithms and When to Resist Them”; Harvard Law School Chair Lecture by Jonathan Zittrain, George Bemis Professor of International Law

Deloitte: “Technology and people: The great job-creating machine” Deloitte economists Ian Stewart, Debapratim De and Alex Cole study employment data from the last 144 years to assess how technological change has affected employment in England and Wale

PEW Research Internet Project: “AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs“; and

HBR: Beyond Automation by Thomas H. Davenport and Julia Kirby

For augmentation to work, employers must be convinced that the combination of humans and computers is better than working alone.


  • Stepping up – moving to jobs that require a higher level of cognition
  • Stepping aside – focusing on human uniqueness and drawing on forms of intelligence that machines lack
  • Stepping in – monitoring and adjusting computer’s decision making
  • Stepping narrowly – focusing on areas requiring more experience, highly specialized realms of expertise
  • Stepping forward – creating next-gen machines, new ways to augment expertise

HBR: The Great Decoupling: An Interview with Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee

GeekWire: Q&A: John Markoff on self-driving cars, the robot revolution and the chances of a ‘job-pocalypse’

HBR: When Your Boss Wears Metal Pants by Walter Frick

HBR: The Self-Tuning Enterprise by Martin Reeves, Ming Zeng, Amin Venjara

Bruegel: “The Computerisation of European Jobs“; Jeremy Bowles

Journal of Evolution and Technology: “BIG and Technological Unemployment: Chicken Little Versus the Economists“; Mark Walker

Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies: “Are we heading for technological unemployment? An Argument“, John Danaher

Video:  “AI and Robotics at an Inflection Point PARC Forum” , Steve Omohundro

Doug Englebart Institute: “Augmenting Human Intellect: a Conceptual Framework“; Douglas C. Englebart

“Rather than automation, our goal is augmentation – cognitive systems to augment and scale human expertise, and to re-image work transforming professions, industries, and regions – as originally envisioned by Engelbart in 1962” (J.Spohrer 2014)

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies; by Nick Bostrom (at Amazon.com)

The Second Machine Age:  Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies; by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

McKinsey&Company: “The Great Decoupling“; Robert Shiller interview

McKinsey&Company: “Understanding the services revolution“; Travis Fagan interview

McKinsey&Company: “Manager and machine: The new leadership equation“; Martin Dewhurst and Paul Willmot

McKinsey&Company: “Automation, jobs and the future of work“, Interview and video summary

Why cognitive systems?

IEEE Fellow Michael I. Jordan, Pehong Chen Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Berkeley on the delusions of big data and other huge engineering efforts; plus a follow on blog post about the controversial title

Humans Need Not Apply

NYTimes: Study to Examine Effects of Artificial Intelligence; John Markoff

Stanford white paper: “One-Hundred Year Study of Artificial Intelligence: Reflections and Framing“; Eric Horvitz

National Academies Press:  Complex Operational Decision Making in Networked Systems of Humans and Machines: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2014)Committee on Integrating Humans, Machines and Networks: A Global Review of Data-to-Decision Technologies; Board on Global Science and Technology; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council

Dataversity:A Brief History of Cognitive Computing“; Charles Roe

Sage Journals:Coming of Age with the internet”; Sally J. Mcmillan, Margaret Morrison

Gartner:  Maverick Research: Surviving the Rise of ‘Smart Machines’, the Loss of ‘Dream Jobs’ and ‘90% Unemployment“; Analyst(s): | |

FT – Technology:Rise of the replicants“; Richard Waters

PWC report: “The Future of Work – a journey to 2022

McKinsey&Company: “Artificial Intelligence meets the C-Suite”, Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee

Thinkprogress: “America’s Business Elites Admit They’d Rather Hire Robots Than People“, Alan Pyke

Ken Goldberg (Berkeley Robotics) TED Talk “Lessons from robots about being human

VIV an intelligent interface to everything

Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence: Project Arist

Center for Economic Performance: “Robots at Work”, Graetz, Georg and Michaels, Guy

Wired; OPINION, “Sure Artificial Intelligence May End Our World, But That Is Not The Main Problem“, Mark Coeckelbergh

Xconomy, “Meet VeeMe: The Virtual Agent Programmed to Think Like Me”, David Nordfors

Huffington Post: How to Disrupt Unemployment”; David Nordfors

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